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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

In text and parenthetical citations

Notes about in-text citations:

  • ASA parenthetical citations are based on The Chicago Manual of Style's "Author-Date" format.
  • Citations in the text should include the last name of the author and the year of publication.
    • (Author Last name Year of Publication)
    • Example: (Duncan 1959)
  • When quoting directly from a source, include page numbers.
    • (Author Last name Year of Publication:page numbers)
    • Example: (Kuhn 1970:71-72)
  • If a source has two authors, provide both last names.
    • (First author Last name and Second author Last name Year of Publication)
    • Example: (Martin and Bailey 1988)
  • If a source has three authors, use all three last names in the first citation for that source; use the first author's last name and "et al." in any subsequent citations.
    • Example:
      • First citation: (Carr, Smith, and Jones 1962)
      • Second citation: (Carr et al. 1962)
  • If a source has more than three authors, use "et al." in all in-text citations for that work.
    • Example: (Brown et al. 1996:50)
  • Cite multiple sources within a single parenthetical reference by separating the sources with semicolons.
    • Example: (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith and Wallop 1989)
  • When the author's name appears in the text, cite the year only in the parenthetical citation, or the year and page numbers in the case of a direct quotation.
    • Example 1: This concept was investigated in another study by Duncan (1959).
    • Example 2: Cooper's historical overview concludes that "what it means to be 'American' is never static" (2015:161).
  • If a source was authored by a corporation or organization, include this entity in any in-text citations for this source.
    • Example: Evidence shows that the trend has continued in recent years (Johns Hopkins University 2013).