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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

Books

 

Basic format

Author(s). Date. Title. Edition if available. Place of Publication: Publisher. Extent. Notes.

Extent includes pagination or number of volumes, but it is considered an optional field. Notes can include any information that may be interesting to the reader (such as language of publication); the notes field is also optional (when citing e-books, place the URL in the notes field -- this is not optional).

Two authors

Leboffe MJ, Pierce BE. 2010 Microbiology: laboratory theory and application. Englewood (CO): Morton Publishing Company.

Three to 10 authors Ferrozzi F, Garlaschi G, Bova D. 2000. CT of metastases. New York (NY): Springer.

 

More than 10 authors

List the first 10  authors in the end reference, followed by "et al."

Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, DeBusk RF, et al. 1995. Cardiac rehabilitation. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US).

 

Organization as author

[ALSG] Advanced Life Support Group. 2001. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London (England): BMJ Books.

Note: If both a personal author and an organizational author appear on the title page of the book, use the personal author only.

 

Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s)

Klarsfeld A, Revah F. 2003. The biology of death: origins of mortality. Brady L, translator. Ithaca (NY): Cornell University Press.

Luzikov VN. 1985. Mitochondrial biogenesis and breakdown. Galkin AV, translator; Roodyn DB, editor. New York (NY): Consultants Bureau.

Chapter or part of a book, different authors

Rapley R. 2010. Recombinant DNA and genetic analysis. In: Wilson K, Walker J, editors. Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology. 7th ed. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. p. 195–262.

Chapter or part of a book, same author(s)

Gawande A. 2010. The checklist manifesto: how to get things right. New York (NY): Metropolitan Books. Chapter 3, The end of the master builder; p. 48-71.

Multivolume work as a whole

Alkire LG, editor. 2006. Periodical title abbreviations. 16th ed. Detroit (MI): Thompson Gale. 2 vol. Vol. 1, By abbreviation; vol. 2, By title.

 

eBooks

Author(s). Date of publication (cYear). Title of book. Edition. Place of Publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. Notes.

Griffiths, AJF, Miller, JH, Suzuki, DT, Lewontin, RC, Gelbart, WM. c2000. Introduction to genetic analysis. 7th ed. New York (NY): W.H. Freeman & Co.; [accessed 2005 May 31]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bvView..ShowTOC&rid=iga.TOC.