Skip to main content

Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.


Sound or music recording

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of song. On Title of Album [Format]. City, State/Country: Record Company.

Lang, K. D. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.

Video/DVD recording

Producer's name. (Producer). (Year). Video/DVD title [Format]. Available from: URL

American Psychological Association. (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from

Online video   

Author, A. A. or Screen name (Year, Month Day). Title of the video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

InteractiveBiology (2010, December 19). The plasma membrane - A video of the cell [Video file]. Retrieved from

Image from a printed work

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of image [Type of material]. In A. Author, Title of book. City/Country: Publisher.

Gentileschi, A. (1630). Self-portrait as the allegory of painting [Painting]. In M. Stokstad and M.W. Cothren, Art history.Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.

Image from an online source

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of artwork [Type of material]. Retrieved from URL

Boticelli, S. (c. 1489). The Cestello annunciation [Painting]. Retrieved from

Technical or Research Report

Author, A. A. or Corporate Author (Year). Title of report (Report No., if available). Location: Publisher.

Eller, A., & Olson, R. (2009). Recycled pavements using foam asphalts in Minnesota (Report No. MN/RC 2009-09). St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Transportation.

Online research report with Corporation/Government agency as author

Corporate Author. (Year). Title of report (Report no., if available). Retrieved from URL

National Institutes of Health. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from

Authored online research report

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report no., if available). Retrieved from Web site name: URL

Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in  Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation web site:

Article from Wikipedia

Title of article. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from article URL

Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from

Personal communications: private letters, email, personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc.

These types of communications are referenced in text but not cited in the References section.

TK. Lucas (personal communication, April 18, 2011) remarked that students should prepare well for an exam. 

It is important for the family to meet with the physician to discuss treatment options (V.G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998).