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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

In text and parenthetical citations

One author in text

When referencing an author in the text, follow the author's name with parentheses containing the year the work was published.

Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples, results varied.

Note: Whether the author is mentioned in the text or in parentheses, the year always follows the name.

One author in reference

When referencing the author in parentheses, use the last name followed by a comma and the year of publication).

Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).

Two authors in text

Refer to the authors by their last names, and follow this with the year of publication in parentheses.

Smith and Jones (2007) conducted several studies on the subject.

Two authors in reference

When referencing more than one author in parentheses, use an ampersand (&) before the last surname and follow that with a comma and the year of publication.

Some authors conducted longitudinal studies that spanned decades (Smith & Jones, 2007).

Three to five authors in text

For the first reference, use all their names followed by the year in parentheses. For subsequent references, use the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the year of publication in parentheses.

First reference: Smith, Jones, and Taylor (2010) found that..

Subsequent references: Smith et al. (2010) later discovered that...

Three to five authors in reference

First reference: That year, the problem became the subject of many studies (Smith, Jones, Taylor, Coleman, & Anderson, 1976)

Subsequent references: A breakthrough finally settled the issue (Smith et al.,  1976).

Six or more authors in text or reference

When there are six or more authors, use this format for either text or reference: Last Name, et al.

In text: Smith et al. (2005) found that preferred character traits varied by culture.

In reference:  Preferred character traits vary by culture (Smith et al., 2005).

Two or more works in text
Good et al. (2001); Hedden and Gabrieli (2004); Raz (2000); and West (1996), indicated that recent behavioral research has revealed changes that occur with aging in the regulation and processing of emotion.
Two or more works in reference
Recent behavioral research has revealed changes that occur with aging in the regulation and processing of emotion (Good et al., 2001; Hedden & Gabrieli, 2004; Raz, 2000; West, 1996).
Same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date in text.

When the same authors have published more than one study in the same year, and every study lists their name in the same order, identify each study with a letter after the year (1996a, 1996b, etc.)

Several studies conducted by Smith and Harrison (2005a, 2005b) indicate that increased education has reduced crime in metropolitan areas.

Same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date in reference.

Same as above, but the information is placed within the parentheses.

Several studies indicate that increased education has reduced crime in metropolitan areas (Smith & Harrison, 2005a, 2005b).

Indirect or secondary source in text

Give the secondary source (Jones) in the reference list and in text, name the original work (Bradley) and give a parenthetical citation for the secondary source (Jones).

Bradley stated that orientation classes are necessary for new online college students (as cited in Jones, 2006, p. 42).

Web page with no author

Cite in parentheses the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.

This has been argued before ("New Child Vaccine," 2001).

Note: In parenthetical and in-text citations, an item that is part of a greater whole is capitalized using title case and quotation marks; items that stand alone are capitalized using title case and italics.

Direct quotation in text, under 40 words

When using a direct quotation under 40 words, use quotation marks around it followed by parentheses containing the name of the author(s), a comma, the year of publication, and the page number preceded by p. for one page, and pp. for a page range.

Confusing this issue is the overlapping nature of roles in palliative care, whereby “medical needs are met by those in the medical disciplines; nonmedical needs may be addressed by anyone on the team” (Csikai & Chaitin, 2006, p. 112).

Note: When using direct quotations, page numbers must be provided in the parenthetical citation.  For sources without page numbers, see the example below.

Direct quotation in text. No page numbers available

If a source does not have page numbers, use paragraph numbers. If possible, use a section heading plus the paragraph number within that section. If the section heading is very long, use an abbreviated heading (e.g. first few words of heading) with quotation marks.

“Sometimes interrogators went beyond the guidelines” (Frankel, 2004, Broad Public Support section, para. 4). 

“Unlike professional basketball and American Football, interest in baseball has not been sweeping the globe” (Lahman, 2014, “Origins of the Game,” para. 1).

Direct quotation in text, over 40 words

Omit quotation marks and start a block quotation on a new line and indent one-half inch from the left margin, double-spaced. Provide page numbers or other location markers.

Others have contradicted this view:

Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event (Smith et al., 2007, p. 12).

Bible, Qu'ran, or other classical religious works

Reference list entries are not required when citing ancient Greek and Roman works or classic religious works. However, in the first parenthetical citation, indicate the version of the classic work used. 

General in-text reference:
The researchers consulted the Bible (King James Version) to provide items for the development of their religious values assessment.

Direct quote:
Three virtues are extolled in the passage: “And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love” (1 Cor. 13:1 New International Version).

The Qur’an prohibits eating pork (Qur’an 5:3).