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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.


TV Show

"Episode Title." Series Title, season #, episode #, Network, Broadcast Date.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013.

TV Show on the Web

"Episode Title."  Series Title, season #, episode #, Network, Broadcast Date. Name of Streaming Service, URL.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 July 2013.  Hulu,

Online video clip

Author name or Username. "Title of Video." Web Site Title, Date, URL.

Astley, Rick. "Never Gonna Give You Up." YouTube, 25 Oct. 2009,

Video/DVD recording

Film Title. Directed by Director's First name Last name, performance by main actor, name of distribution company, release date.

Ripley's Game. Directed by Liliana Cavani, performance by John Malkovitch, New Line Home Video, 2004.


Example of published interview:

Saro-Wiwa, Ken. "English Is the Hero." Interview with Diri I. Teilanyo. No Condition is Permanent: Nigerian Writing and the Struggle for Democracy, edited by Holger Ehling and Claus-Peter Holste-von Mutius, Rodopi, 2001, pp. 13-19.

Example of interview conducted by the researcher:

Walcott, Derek. Interview. By Susan Lang. 22 Oct. 2002.

Source: Modern Language Association

Note: Some instructors prefer to format the personal interview differently than the Modern Language Association (see below for an example).  You should always respect your instructor's preferences.

Walcott, Derek. Personal interview. 22 Oct. 2002.

Lecture or other address

Author Last name, First name. "Title." Event Name, Date, Location. Type.

Smith, Susan. "Ten Tips for Student Success." Welcome Week, 21 Aug. 2017. Piedmont Virginia Community College, Charlottesville. Address.

Class handout or other unpublished document

Author Last name, First name. "Document Title."  Year. Description of document.

Jackson, Jonas. "Midterm Review." 2016. Class handout.

Allen, Carrie. "Comma Usage." 2016. Class notes for ENG 101.

If there is no title, cite without it.

Thompson, Susan. Class handout. 2016.

Note: for materials uploaded to Blackboard by instructors, see this.

Digital file (PDF, Word file, MP3, etc.) not online

Author Last name, First name. "Document Title" (or description). Date. File format.

Hamilton, Grace. Lecture on Edgar Allan Poe. 2016. MP3.

Bible, Qu'ran, and other holy works

Begin the citation with the title of the work. Optional: the name of the version can be recorded after the title.

The Holy Bible. Standard Version. Crossway-Good News, 2003.

The Qu'ran: A New Translation. Translated by Abdel Haleem, Oxford UP, 2008.

Government report, print

Government Agency. Title of Report. Publisher, Date of Publication.

United States. Dept.of Labor. Child Care: A Workforce Issue. GPO, 1988.

Note: Many government reports are published by the Government Printing Office, abbreviated "GPO."

Government report, Web

Follow the example above, but add the website name and the source's URL.

United States. Dept. of State. Diplomatic List. GPO, Spring 2016. U.S. Dept. of State,