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HLT 230 Assignment Playbook

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Assignment: Written Reflection

  • Make sure you read your assignment carefully. Ask your instructor for clarification regarding your assignment requirements.
  • In addition to your course materials, you will need to locate a minimum of two outside sources.
    • Your sources should be primary sources or government reports. 
  • Cite your sources using APA format. Use the library's APA citation style playbook for help with formatting citations.

Finding Primary Sources

  • Go to the EBSCO portal
  • On the Choose Databases page, click on Select All, then click Continue.
  • Type your topic in the first search box. Use a small number of nouns (usually one or two); for example: hypertension. You can use multiple nouns by connecting them with "AND". For example, hypertension AND race. Do not use verbs, prepositions (after, between, etc.), articles (a, the, etc.), phrases, or vague terms (relationship, effect).
  • Click Search.

screenshot of EBSCO search 

  • You can ask EBSCO to limit your results to peer reviewed sources.  After you run your search, look on the left hand side of the screen and under "Limit To," check the "Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals" box.

screenshot of EBSCO limiters

Determining a Primary Source

Definitions of what is primary or secondary differ across the disciplines. For the sciences, a primary source

  •     documents the results of original research
  •     is written by those who have conducted the research
  •     includes firsthand information about their methodologies, data, results, or conclusions.

Examples of methods section in a primary article

Primary sources in the sciences:

  •     report original research, ideas, or scientific discoveries for the first time
  •     report results/findings/data from experiments or research studies
  •     may also be referred to as primary research, primary articles, or research studies
  •     are NOT meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or literature reviews - these are secondary sources
  •     are frequently found in peer-reviewed or scholarly journals
  •     should explain the research methodology used (randomized controlled trial, etc)
  •     frequently include methods, results, and discussion sections
  •     are factual, not interpretive

Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources

Primary Sources Secondary Sources
Research articles reporting original research (studies) published in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals Summaries, critiques, or interpretations of primary literature
Clinical trials Review articles
Interviews Textbooks (can also be a tertiary source)
Correspondence Dictionaries (can also be a tertiary source)
Patents Directories (can also be a tertiary source)
Lab notebooks Encyclopedias (can also be a tertiary source)
Data sets  
Theses and dissertations  
Technical reports  

Adapted from San Jose State University Library Biological Sciences

Finding a Government Report

You may also use government reports for your chosen health disparity. To find government reports, you can use a search engine such as Google or Bing. To limit your results to a government site, format your search like this:  

  • hypertension AND race site:.CDC.gov

screenshot of site specific search on Google

You can also use the government sites listed below. 

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