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Media Literacy Modules

These modules support faculty who wish to integrate media literacy into their courses, regardless of discipline.


Identifying Biased News Reporting

What is Bias?

Watch this video on recognizing bias (from Films on Demand). If off campus, you will need to login with your MyPVCC username and password.

Reader Bias

on research comic

Implicit Bias

When you read a news story, you as the reader apply your own set of biases, and understanding those biases is important because it can color how you consume media. Let's take a look at two types of reader bias: implicit bias and confirmation bias.

Implicit Bias

Implicit bias "refers to the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner" (The Kirwan Institute for the Student of Race and Ethnicity, The Ohio State University). Implicit bias is tricky because it is subconcious! You can profess to believe one thing, but in actuality you do, say, or gravitate toward something else.

Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias is "the tendency of people to favor information that confirms their beliefs or hypotheses and minimizes evidence to the contrary" ( The person in the above cartoon is a hyperbolic example of confirmation bias, but often times this is exactly what student researchers do. They only search for information that agrees with them, defends their beliefs, or affirms their preconceived notions. This is a easy bias to fall prey to while researching for academic papers. Remember, don't just seek out information that agrees with you! You will need to find information that disagrees with you, too. Think of it this way, how can you argue for something if you don't know what the detractors are saying?

Types of Bias

According to the News Literacy Project, news bias is usually "incidental and debatable rather than intentional and overt," meaning news organizations are trying NOT to be biased in their news reporting. (This rule does not apply to opinion or commentary pieces which, quite intentionally, present a point of view.) Sometimes bias happens, but most reputable journalists and news organizations attempt to be accurate and fair.

Below are common types of bias in news reporting.
Type of Bias Definition
Partisan When news coverage unfairly favors one political party, viewpoint, or group.
Demographic When the demographic of the news organization and journalists affect how they present or write an article. Can be present when the newsroom staff is not diverse.
Corporate When the parent company or owner affect the presentation of news stories.
Neutrality Also known as "false balance" or "both sides." When something is demonstrably known (like climate change), but the news article attempts a neutral stance.
Big Story When journalists lean in (focus too much) on big stories.
Visual Including visuals will draw the reader's attention.  Do images presented evoke specific responses?  Do they prejudice the reader to view the news one way?

Read more about the types of bias here on the Student News Daily.

How Does Bias Look in News Articles

Bias Technique Definition
Tone The language and word choice of an article. Includes using terms for groups or organizations that are either favorable or pejorative, depending on the slant of the article.
Framing The way the story is presented.
Absence of Fairness or Balance Not addressing one side of an argument or situation, often the one that disagrees with the publication's perspective or mission, or using quotes or other information "out of context."
Story Selection What stories the news organization chooses to cover and pursue, market, or push.
Sourcing Choosing to include more sources from one point of view.

Identifying Partisan Bias Graphic

Example Assignments/Lesson Plans