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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.


APA Citation Style for Miscellaneous Sources:
Film or video

Last Name, Initials of Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc. (Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc.). (Year). Title of work [Description]. Production Company (or companies). URL if applicable.

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

Fosha, D. (Guest Expert), & Levenson, H. (Host). (2017). Accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (AEDP) supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Association.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

TV Series

Last Name, Initials of Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc. (Director/Producer/Host/Artist/etc.). (Year). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. URL if applicable.

Simon, D., Colesbury, R.F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions, HBO.

TV series episode or webisode

Names of writer(s) and director(s). (Date). Episode title (season and episode) [Description]. In names of executive producers, Series title, Production Company (or companies).

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Graff, A. Anderson, E.B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions, ABC Studios.

Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J.L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

NOTE: Include writers and the director for the episode. Include the contributor roles in parentheses after each contributor's name.

Personal communications: class notes, private letters, email, personal interviews, telephone conversations, etc.

These types of communications are referenced in text but not cited in the References section.

T.K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2011) remarked that students should prepare well for an exam. 

It is important for the family to meet with the physician to discuss treatment options (V.G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998).

"Studying the material a little every day ensures better performance on exams" (M. Rutherford, personal communication, October 2, 2017). 

Code of Ethics

Group Author. (Year). Title. URL

American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics.

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements.

YouTube video or other streaming video

Author Last Name, Initials. [User Name]. (Date). Title of video [Video]. Site. URL

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 20). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

University of Oxford. (2018, December 6). How do geckos walk on water? [Video]. YouTube.

NOTE: For the sake of retrievability, the person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the work.

Podcast series

Author Last Name, Initials. (Role). (Years). Title of podcast [Type of podcast]. Site. URL

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.


  • List the host of the podcast as the author.
  • Specify the type of podcast (audio or video)
  • If the URL of the podcast is unknown (for example, when accessed via an app), simply omit that information.
Podcast episode

Author Last Name, Initials. (Role). (Date). Episode title (episode No.) [podcast type]. In Title of podcast series. Site. URL

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago.

PowerPoint slides (online)

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Website title. URL

Jones, J. (2016, March 23). Guided reading: Making the most of it [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

PowerPoint slides (from a classroom website)

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title [PowerPoint slides]. Classroom website name. URL.

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU.


  • If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Canvas, Blackboard, etc.), or company intranet and you are writing for an audience with access to that resource, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login).
  • If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the slides, cite them as a personal communication.



Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of infographic [Infographic]. Site. URL

Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival.

NOTE: Use this format to cite content from an infographic. To reproduce an infographic, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.


Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Site. URL

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic.

NOTE: Use this format to cite photographs or other artwork not connected to a museum. To reproduce a photograph, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference.

Clip art or stock image

Author. (Date, or n.d.). Name of clip art or stock image [Type]. Site. URL

Winn-Boujnida, C. (n.d.). White table lamp on gray end table [Stock photo]. Unsplash.

AnnaliseArt. (n.d.). Balloons [Clip art]. Pixabay.

NOTE: Use this format to cite (but not reproduce) most clip art or stock images. To reproduce clip art or stock images, permission and/or copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference. No citation, permission, or copyright attribution is necessary for clip art from programs like Microsoft Word or PowerPoint.


Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

Author Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of work [Medium or format]. Location where the art resides. URL if applicable.

Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, IL, United States.


  • Use this format to cite all types of museum artwork, including paintings, sculptures, photographs, prints, drawings, and installations; always include a description of the medium or format in square brackets after the title.
  • For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.
Religious and classical works


  • Religious works (Bible, Qur'an, Torah, etc.), classical works (for example, ancient Greek and Roman works), and classical literature (for example, works by Shakespeare) are all cited like books.
  • Religious works are treated as having no author. An annotated version of a religious work would be treated as having an editor.
  • The year of publication of a religious work may be unknown or in dispute, and in these cases, the year is not part of the reference.
  • If the religious work has been republished, then the republished dates are included in the reference.

Aristotle. (1994). Poetics. (S.H. Butcher, Trans.). The Internet Classics Archive. (Original work published ca. 350 B.C.E.)

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. (Original work published 1769)

Shakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B.A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington Square Press. (Original work published 1623)