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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

Web pages

APA Citation Style for Web Pages:
General notes
  • If you cite multiple pages from a website, create a reference for each.
  • To mention a website in general, do not create a reference or an in-text citation. Instead, give the name of the website in the text, and include the URL in parentheses.
    • Example: PBS Kids (https://pbskids.org/games/) provides many entertaining games for children.
Web page with individual author

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date). Article title. Website name. URL

Martin Lillie, C.M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/self-compassion-can-improve-your-resiliency/art-20267193

Web page with group author

Group author. (Date). Article title. URL

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https/www.who.int/features/qa/84/en

 

Webpage on a news website

Author Last Name, Initials. (Date). Article title. Website name. URL

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-happens-mind-body-homesick_us_5b201ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1

Note: Use this format for articles published in online news sources such as CNN, HuffPost, Reuters, Salon, BBC News, Vox, etc.

Web page with no date

Author Last Name, Initials. (n.d.). Web page title. Site Name. URL

Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists. http://www.ethicsguidebook.ac.uk/EthicsPrinciples

ASPCA. (n.d.). Destructive chewing. https://www.aspca.org/pet-care/dog-care/common-dog-behavior-issues/destructive-chewing

Note: When the author and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

Wikipedia entry

Entry title. (Year, month, date). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page.

List of oldest companies. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia. https:en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_oldest_companies&oldid=878158136

Notes:

  • Cite the archived version of a Wikipedia page so readers can retrieve the specific version you used. To access the archived version of a Wikipedia entry, click "View history."
Entry in an online encyclopedia, dictionary, thesaurus, with individual author

Author Last Name, Initials. Entry title. In Initials, Last Name (Ed.), Title of online work (date). Publisher information. URL from archives if available.

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism

Entry in an online encyclopedia, dictionary, thesaurus, with group author

Group Author. (Date). Entry title. In Title of work. Retrieved date, from URL.

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/positive-transference

NOTES:

  • When an online reference work is continuously updated and the versions are not archived, use "n.d." as the year of publication and include a retrieval date.
  • If there is no group author, start with the title of the entry.
Tweet (Twitter post)

Author Last Name, Initials (or name of group)  [Screen name]. (Date). Tweet content up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Tweet]. Twitter.  Tweet URL

APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs--and they're making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumbnail and link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/apaeducation/status/1012810490530140161

Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BadlandsNPS/status/968196500412133379

White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BettyMWhite/status/1009951892846227456

Facebook post

Author Last Name, Initials (or Name of Group, or Name of Group [Username]). (Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals]. Facebook. Post URL (can be shortened with a service such as Bitly)

Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/2JQxPAD

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook. http://bit.ly321Qstq

News From Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: https://scim.ag/2KlriwH [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/videos/10155508587605108/

Note: This format can be used for posts in other social media services, such as Tumblr, LinkedIn, etc.