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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

Websites & Webpages [Notes & Biblio.]


*A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“As of February 1, 2023, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website…”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Due to website content often changing, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation.

FIRST NOTE: "Title of Website," website author, publication date/last modified date, OR accessed date, URL.

  • “Google Privacy Policy,” Google, last modified March 11, 2009,
  • "McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008,
SUBSEQUENT NOTES: "Title of Website."
  • “Google Privacy Policy.”
  • “Toy Safety Facts.”
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Website author. "Title of Website." Publication date/Last modified date. OR Accessed date. URL.
  • Google. “Google Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 11, 2009.
  • McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008.

*For more information, see Chicago Manual of Style section 14.207


*If a page does not have an author, start with the title. 

FIRST NOTEAuthor first & last name, "Title of Webpage," Publishing Organization or Name of Website, publication date if available, or date of access, URL.

  • Jillian Kubala, "8 Symptoms of Caffeine Withdrawal," Healthline, April 24, 2018,

SUBSEQUENT NOTES:  Author Last Name, "Shortened Title."

  • Kubala, "Caffeine Withdrawal."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Last Name, First Name. "Title of Webpage." Publishing Organization or Name of WebsitePublication date if available, or access date. URL.

  • Kubala, Jillian. "8 Symptoms of Caffeine Withdrawal." Healthline. April 24, 2018.

*Chicago Manual of Style section 14.207