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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

Social media

APA Citation Style for Social Media:

Use the examples below to format your social media sources.

Tweet (Twitter post)

Author Last Name, Initials (or name of group)  [Screen name]. (Date). Tweet content up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Tweet]. Twitter.  Tweet URL

APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs--and they're making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumbnail and link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter.

White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Facebook post

Author Last Name, Initials (or Name of Group, or Name of Group [Username]). (Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals]. Facebook. Post URL (can be shortened with a service such as Bitly)

Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook. http://bit.ly321Qstq

News From Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: [Video]. Facebook.

Note: This format can be used for posts in other social media services, such as Tumblr, LinkedIn, etc.

Instagram photo

Philadelphia Museum of Art [@philamuseum]. (2019, December 3). “It’s always wonderful to walk in and see my work in a collection where it’s loved, and where people are" [Photograph]. Instagram.

Parenthetical citation: (Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2019)

Narrative citation: Philadelphia Museum of Art (2019)

Instagram video

APA Public Interest Directorate [@apapubint]. (2019, June 14). Male depression is serious, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Different men have different symptoms, but [Video]. Instagram.

Parenthetical citation: (APA Public Interest Directorate, 2019)

Narrative citation: APA Public Interest Directorate (2019)


Instagram profile

Swift, T. [@taylorswift]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from

Parenthetical citation: (Swift, n.d.)

Narrative citation: Swift (n.d.)

Instagram highlight

The New York Public Library [@nypl]. (n.d.). The raven [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved January 6, 2020, from

Parenthetical citation: (The New York Public Library, n.d.)

Narrative citation: (The New York Public Library (n.d.)


TikTok video

Cook, P. [@chemteacherphil]. (2021, September 17). Fighting fire with fire. #sciencetok #learnontiktok [Video]. TikTok.

Parenthetical citation: (Cook, 2021)

Narrative citation: Cook (2021)

TikTok profile

Witherspoon, R. [@reesewitherspoon]. (n.d.). [TikTok profile]. TikTok. Retrieved February 18, 2022, from

Parenthetical citation: (Witherspoon, n.d.)

Parenthetical citation: Witherspoon (n.d.)