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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

Other References

In-Text Only Parenthetical Citations:

Unlike other citation styles you may already be familiar with, such as MLA or APA, ASM style stipulates that some types of references are not included in the Reference List at the end of your paper. This primarily applied to sources that are unpublished, including unpublished presentations, working manuscripts, personal communications, and Web sites. For these unpublished sources, you will cite them in the text of your paper only.


In-Text Only Citations

Examples of In-Text Citation Format:
Unpublished data or manuscripts

In-Text Citation Format:

...(Author's first initial(s). Author's last name, unpublished data/manuscript/document).

Examples: instance where the system was used (A.F. Holder, unpublished document).

...recent scientific studies show similar results (R.B. Layton and C.C. Weathers, unpublished data).

Other unpublished materials (posters, handouts, lab instructions)

In-Text Citation Format:

...(Author's first initial(s). Author's last name, Affiliated institution/organization/conference, Location [if relevant], Date [DMY]).


...when the agent operates as described previously (M.G. Gordon and F.L. Rattner, presented at the Fourth Symposium on Food Microbiology, Overton, IL, 13 June 1989).

...according to directions (A. Professor, Biology Lab Powerpoint, Piedmont Virginia Community College, 15 March 2015).


In-Text Citation Format:


(Note: According to ASM Instructions to Authors - January 2015, "URLs for companies that produce any of the products mentioned in your study or for products being sold may not be included in the article. However, company URLs that permit access to scientific data related to the study or to shareware used in the study are permitted.")


...available in the GenBank database (

Note Regarding Unpublished and Web Citations

The official ASM Instructions to Authors - January 2015 only provides general recommendations for citing Web-based sources and unpublished material. Typically authors publishing in ASM journals, such as the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, do not rely on sources such as Web sites and lab handouts. Therefore, the following examples should be used as guidelines rather than firm rules.