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Citation Styles Playbook

The purpose of this playbook is to help you cite the sources used in your academic research.

Comparison of the MLA and APA styles

MLA Style APA Style
List of citations is called Works Cited List of citations is called References
Parenthetical citations must include author's last name, and page number(s) if available. Example: (Williams 27). Parenthetical citations must include author's last name and year of publication. Example: (Williams, 2009). Page numbers, if available, are used only for materials in quotation marks. Use p. for one page and pp. for a range. Example: (Williams, 2009, pp. 2-9).
Book titles in italics; capitalizes every important word in title and subtitle. Example: Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability, and Survival. Book titles in italics; capitalizes only the first word in the title, the first word in the subtitle, acronyms, and proper nouns. Example: Brewing justice: Fair trade coffee, sustainability, and survival.
Article titles in quotation marks: "Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health."  Capitalization rules are the same as for book titles. Article titles without quotation marks; capitalization rules are the same as for book titles. Example: Coffee consumption and cardiovascular health.
First author listed as last name, first name. Example: Welty, Eudora. Second author listed as first name, last name. Example: Harris, Ellen, and Susan Smith. If more than two authors, list only first author followed by "et al." Example: Kramer, Rebecca, et al. Authors listed as last name, initial(s). Example: Welty, E. Lists all authors; an ampersand (&) precedes the last author.
Requires the name of the database an article was retrieved from, and a stable URL to the article. Does not list the name of the database or the date of access. Requires a Retrieved from field which lists a URL. For journal articles, the URL is that of the journal's homepage.
If a DOI is available, it is used instead of a URL. Example: doi: 10.1044/2015_AJA-15-0021 Requires DOI if available. Example: doi: 10.1044/2015_AJA-15-0021
Year of publication is located towards the end of the citation. Year of publication follows the name(s) of the author(s).
Common knowledge information (information almost everyone in the target audience should know), is not cited. Common knowledge information (information almost everyone in the target audience should know), is not cited.