|MLA Style||APA Style|
|List of citations is called Works Cited||List of citations is called References|
|Parenthetical citations must include author's last name, and page number(s) if available. Example: (Williams 27).||Parenthetical citations must include author's last name and year of publication. Example: (Williams, 2009). Page numbers, if available, are used only for materials in quotation marks. Use p. for one page and pp. for a range. Example: (Williams, 2009, pp. 2-9).|
|Book titles in italics; capitalizes every important word in title and subtitle. Example: Brewing Justice: Fair Trade Coffee, Sustainability, and Survival.||Book titles in italics; capitalizes only the first word in the title, the first word in the subtitle, acronyms, and proper nouns. Example: Brewing justice: Fair trade coffee, sustainability, and survival.|
|Article titles in quotation marks: "Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Health." Capitalization rules are the same as for book titles.||Journal article titles without quotation marks; capitalization rules are the same as for book titles. Example: Coffee consumption and cardiovascular health.|
|First author listed as last name, first name. Example: Welty, Eudora. Second author listed as first name, last name. Example: Harris, Ellen, and Susan Smith. If more than two authors, list only first author followed by "et al." Example: Kramer, Rebecca, et al.||Authors listed as last name, initial(s). Example: Welty, E. Lists all authors (up to 20); an ampersand (&) precedes the last author.|
|Requires the name of the database an article was retrieved from, and a stable URL to the article.||Does not list the name of the database or the date of access.|
If a DOI is available, it is used instead of a URL. Example: https://doi.org/10.1044/2015_AJA-15-0021
Note that you need to use the prefix https://
If there is no DOI, a stable URL (also called a permalink) is required.
Requires DOI if available. Example: https://doi.org/10.1044/2015_AJA-15-0021
For journal articles without a DOI, a URL is added. The URL points to the page where the pertinent journal volume is.
|Year of publication is located towards the end of the citation.||Year of publication follows the name(s) of the author(s).|
|Common knowledge information (information almost everyone in the target audience should know), is not cited.||Common knowledge information (information almost everyone in the target audience should know), is not cited.|
|All entries on the Works Cited list must end with a period.||Entries on the References list end with a period, except after a URL or DOI.|
|Visit the MLA style playbook.||Visit the APA style playbook|